Wednesday, March 5, 2014

HTML is not a Disease and MP3 is not a Robot

Upon finding out that 10% of people think that HTML is a disease, I must let everyone know that HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language.

Hypertext Markup Language is instruction to create/design websites utilized with open and closing greater than/less than angled brackets < >. An HTML expression may look like this: <!DOC>. The use of the exclamation point in the syntax means that the markup is open and that there is a comment therein. Another example is the title, written: <TITLE> HTML is not a Disease and MP3 is not a Robot</TITLE>; this syntax tells the computer that HTML is not a Disease and MP3 is not a Robot is the title and where you see the </ symbol the title will close.

Please be sure to tell your friends that HTML is not a disease it is computer markup language used for website building.

 Also, MP3 is not a Star Wars robot. MP3 is slang for MPEG Layer-3; which is the audio file format layer. The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) administers industry standards for digital video systems which is part of the International Standards Organization.

Thursday, February 13, 2014

Spectrum within Spectrum

9 kHz – 275GHz is the spectrum issued as a source document by the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT).

Wi-Fi means wireless fidelity. In this session, we will discuss who administers the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum; this is how we receive our Wi-Fi communications. The United States and most of the world switched over from analogue to digital; which freed up a large band area of 650 Megs of digital bandwidth from 50MHz – 700MHz. When compressed into fewer channels, this opens bandwidth allowing for more data transmission.
The National Telecommunication Information Administration (NTIA) allocates spectrum for Federal use within the United States Military, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), aeronautics, etc. and administers rights to broadcast over allocated frequency; this includes a bandplan.

The Federal Communications’ Commission is an independent regulatory agency that administers spectrum for non-federal allocations including personal, business, state, local governmental use within which is the Office of Engineering and Technology ( OET). The OET allocates the Table of Frequencies.
Guard Band refers to the unused white space between bands that curtails destructive interference.
Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB)--Broadcast only receivers cannot receive DAB+
Digital Audio Broadcasting + (DAB+)--the Digital Radio for broadcasting in several countries and is not forward compatible with DAB
Digital Media Broadcasting (DMB)--the first official mobile television in South Korea in 2005, took the place of FM radio; which can operate by satellite S-DMB or terrestrially T-DMB.

There is more to come about spectrum overall and how electromagnetic spectrum is allocated for use in communications.

Friday, June 21, 2013

Scientific Notation

Discussion K3
Lesson: Scientific Notation

This is an important tool used  to manipulate very large and very small numbers, easily; utilizing decimals and exponents. The Scientific Notation rule is to move the number of the negative exponent to the left of the decimal and when the exponent is positive move the decimal  that many times to the right to exact results when solving quadratic equations.
HICAP uses exponents to distinguish which version of 'Discussion K' is being highlighted in coursework.
To find out more about Scientific Notation, simply make a Google Search and a plethora of sites will appear to help you better understand and work solutions.

Monday, April 8, 2013


Discussion J3
Lesson: Oscilloscope 

The subject of  Oscilloscope is chosen because is the machinery that demonstrates our prior lesson on Bandwidth and Frequency. The o-scope measures frequency. We've all seen the box that beeps in hospital rooms with the wave form moving across the small screen; this is called a cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO). The on screen graph has a vertical Y axis, which measures the amplitude; and a horizotal X axis that notes the time it takes to beep again. Thus, the o-scope measures the frequency of the amplitude of a wave over time.
Oscilloscopes are used in the automotive industry for diagnostics, in medicine to display the waveform of a heartbeat as an electrocardiogram. They are, also, used in telecommunications, in the sciences and in engineering. Today's o-scopes are digital (DSO-Digital Storage Oscilloscope). DSOs utilize general purpose digital computers to process and display waveforms at a much lower cost.

Sunday, April 7, 2013

Bandwidth and Frequency

Discussion I3
Lesson: Bandwidth is the Currency of the Internet

Bandwidth Capacity is the peak data bit rate transmission from one point to another in a specified amount of time.
Bandwidth Speed is the rate at which data is manipulated in a computer’s processor.
Broadband is having instantaneous bandwidth greater than 1MHz; supporting data bit rates greater than 1.5 Mbps.
Bandwidth is synonymous with data transfer rate; which means the amount of data that can go from point to point in one second. Data is transferred in bits; ones and zeros. Bandwidth is measured in bits per second (bps). Skype calls throughput is between 24 and 128 bps.
Bandwidth is ususally carried over a succession of links. If one of those links slows the process, it is said to be bottlenecked. Our download speed is determined by bandwidth. Bandwidth is the difference between the highest and the lowest frequency. Frequency is measured in cycles per second; we call that unit measurement Hertz.
Frequency is named for Heinrich Hertz, who gave birth to wireless phenomenon by conclusively demonstrating the existence of electromagnetic wave frequency radio reception
and transmission. Thus, today on our AM and FM radio identify their unique position with amplitude modulation-AM and frequency modulation-FM; which is measured in Hertz-Hz.
6 MHz is the frequency for television and FM radio.
For an indepth understanding of the terms in blue, please Google search.

Thursday, April 4, 2013

HICAP Advance

Advance Discussion A3
In the old days, the Internet was accessed by dialing-up via computer. Now, there are numerous devices, including game consoles, which carry the net. Today, we will concentrate on the telephone. Cellular phones have become the number one way to access the Internet. When advertisers offer the G series cell phone, G does not mean giga; G refers to the successive numeric version.
Sprint, Verizon, Virgin Mobile use CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) designed by Qualcomm, USA. CDMA is wireless interface using spread spectrum where the electromagnetic energy is spread allowing wider bandwidth and multiplexing over the same channel with a shared bandwidth of frequency.
GSM (Global System Mobile) is used by T-Mobile, AT&T and is great in rural areas. GSM originated in 1982 by the European Conference of Postal & Telecommunication (CEPT) is used by 80% of the world; and boasts wider international roaming capacity. Advanced GSM incorporates TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access). EDGE (Enhanced Data GMA Evaluation) is designed for streaming television and multimedia.
The iPhone uses VPN (Virtual Private Network). iPhone has excellent tracking application to find your mislaid or pilfered phone.

Monday, April 1, 2013


Discussion H3
Lesson: Qubits

Stated in Discussion: Intro A3:
A bit is either in the zero position or the one position. Bits are the intellectual life-blood of computing. The physical nature of Qubits goes beyond just one and zero. In Quantum Physics the Theory of Entanglement states that one particle can exist in two separate and distant places at the same time. Its application in Quantum Computing is that when both the zero and the one are active at the same time, in separate and distant places, they are called Qubits. Qubits have the potential of exponentially increasing the power of computing. This research when born into fruition is a quantum leap forward in computing.
For a deeper understanding, please go to our previous hicapv blog from August 23, 2012 entitled: Quantum Computing Qubits-Revisited